According to the production and processing technology, steel ball is divided into grinding ball, forging ball, casting ball. According to the processing materials are divided into bearing steel ball, stainless steel ball, carbon steel ball, copper bearing steel ball, alloy ball, etc. The bearing steel ball are important basis parts for industry, alloy steel ball is the carbon, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, etc as the main metal elements added, and through the way of forging, casting and rolling, spinning generated a globular shape alloy wear-resistant body, It is the most important component of the ball used for crushing industrial mines, cement and valves.
1. classification of steel balls
5. Influencing factors
Classification of steel ball
From the application category, the steel ball can be divided into two categories: the wear-resistant steel ball applied in crushing industry and the steel ball applied in precision bearing or precision ball valve industry. Wear-resisting steel ball (referred to as grinding ball) is now the most widely used industrial practice products, there is a saying: “there is industry must be crusher” to say very appropriate; The use of bearing steel ball in precision bearing industry and life field has a long history, more widely used, it can be said that most of the rotating place has the existence of steel ball.
Steel ball is a general term for steel ball; steel section and special-shaped grinding body. In terms of shape, it can be divided into normal round balls (in a narrow sense), capsule balls, oval balls, Yin and Yang balls, hollow balls, polyhedron balls, and polyhedron balls (with pits on the surface).
The production mode of steel ball generally includes forging, rolling, semi-solid forming and casting. Forging and rolling balls account for a large proportion in these industries due to the special use conditions, comprehensive environment and background of the history and mineral processing industry. Semi-solid forming has the characteristics of unconventional casting, which can be explained by non-simple die casting, and attracts people’s attention for its excellent performance, which is formed by an advanced technology like casting, forging+casting. While casting steel ball with its simple, flexible, and reliable mode of production, easy to realize the expansion of large-scale production in low investment advantage, especially when experts and engineers face furnaces use all kinds of advanced technology and alloy composition design, play to the endless imagination, another one to create a newer, more advanced varieties, to meet the needs of the competition brought about by the sense of accomplishment, more very person can experience. Due to its high cost performance and sustainable development potential, it has become the dominant force in the milling industry, especially in the cement milling industry.
Commonly used cast steel balls can be roughly divided into the following eleven categories according to their chemical composition:
1. chromium anti-wear cast iron ball;
2. Anti-wear cast ball of low-alloy steel;
3. Anti-wear casting ball of medium and high alloy steel;
4. High manganese steel ball;
5. Half steel and half iron ball;
6. Medium manganese ductile iron ball;
7. Aube and Mabe composite steel balls;
8. BAD and CAD anti-wear casting ball;
9. Special alloy cast iron ball;
10. Anti-wet-wear casting ball;
11. Other casting balls.
Steel ball is an important basic component, especially precision industry steel ball plays an important role in the development of national economy. In some special conditions, special materials of steel balls are often needed to achieve the required functions in different environments. In fact, some special steel balls have been widely used in various fields of the national economy, including 9Cr18, 3Cr13 stainless steel, copper, aluminum, titanium alloy steel and agate, glass, ceramic ball. Their popularization and application not only promoted the development of steel ball production industry, but also promoted the technological development and technological progress of related industries.
The post-process of steel ball production, namely, automatic cleaning of steel ball, automatic appearance inspection (automatic elimination of unqualified products), automatic rust prevention, counting and packaging, are the key factors affecting the quality of steel ball. The appearance inspection of steel ball is an indispensable process in the processing of steel ball. The appearance inspection of steel ball mainly includes the inspection of surface scratches, rusts, surface spots and so on. Steel ball manufacturing process: stamping — light grinding — hardening — hard grinding — appearance — fine grinding — cleaning — rust — finished product packaging.
Steel ball is widely used in bearings, valves, hardware, electronics, iron, mechanical equipment, power, mining, metallurgy and other fields.
(1) Influence of material density: steel ball, cast iron ball, alloy steel ball, etc., the density of different materials is different, the density of steel is larger than that of cast iron, alloy steel is different according to the density and content of the main alloy elements.
(2) the influence of steel ball manufacturing method: rolled and forged steel ball structure dense, so the density is large, casting cast steel ball, cast iron ball or cast alloy ball, such as the structure is not very dense, even there are pores, so the density is smaller.
(3) Influence on the microstructure of steel ball: the density of martensite, austenite, bainite, ferrite and other different crystal structures are also different, which also affects the fineness of the crystal.
(4) The influence of chemical composition elements: steel ball products due to the chemical composition such as iron, carbon, chromium, manganese, sulfur, phosphorus and other components are different, on the hardness of the ball, impact wear has different degrees of influence, in general, the chromium content is large, the ball wear resistance is high.